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High reflectivity electrofluidic pixels with zero-power grayscale operation


Electrofluidic display pixels are demonstrated with zero-power grayscale operation for 3 months and with >70% reflectance. The color of the pixel is changed as electrowetting moves the pigment dispersion between a top and bottom channel. When voltage is removed, a near zero Laplace pressure and a hysteresis pressure of 0.11 kN/m2 stabilizes the position. For 450 pixels, an electromechanical pressure of 1.4 kN/m2 moves the pigment dispersion at a speed of 2650 m/s. The predicted switching speed for 150 pixels is consistent with video rate operation (20 ms). The geometrically sophisticated pixel structure is fabricated with only simple photolithography and wet chemical processing.